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Integrated & Inclusive Infrastructure Framework for Kenya


3iF – Integrated and Inclusive Infrastructure Framework is a practical guidebook for actors working in fields related to infrastructure and informal settlement upgrading in Kenya.


It aims to help maximise the integration and inclusivity benefits of projects and learning by government, built environment professionals, students and academics. It is intended to be used when developing policy, and planning, designing and implementing infrastructure upgrading projects, to reduce inequality and promote shared prosperity. 


3iF introduces new ‘Principles’ and an initial group of practical ‘Tactics’ for working towards Integrated and Inclusive Infrastructure for upgrading. 

To learn more about how the framework was developed READ MORE...


The Framework

Defining the 
3 ‘i’ of 3iF

Through the development of this first version of 3iF, the team and external stakeholders have discussed and debated  different definitions of infrastructure, inclusivity, and integration in the Kenyan context. Below are working definitions generated through the workshopping process. 


Integrating Disciplines. Bringing together disciplinary expertise from different engineering disciplines, the built environment, governance, landscape architecture, environment, ecology, and social sciences to realise user visions. 

Integrating Systems. Joining-up/holistic infrastructure planning, where services, utilities, access, public space, natural assets, and social and economic amenities are considered together - where possible achieving multi-functionality.  Connecting participants involved at different points of the life-cycle. 


Including the Excluded. Addressing the needs of neighbourhoods and residents who have been historically excluded from planning, development, and upgrading processes.

Including Users. From inception to operation and beyond, an inclusive infrastructure approach involves civil society, the end users, and utility companies.

Defining 3iF

Who Should
Use 3iF?

3iF provides principles and tactics that can be used in different stages of infrastructure development, with a particular focus on informal settlements. 

If you are a county leader, administrator, engineer, physical or development planner, or work in urban planning in any way, and your work concerns informal settlements or low income communities, then 3iF is for you.

WHY 3iF?

As government bodies and other partners make considerable investments in infrastructure across Kenya, we position 3iF as a set of principles and tactics to support sustainable infrastructure development in the nation’s cities. This first version of 3iF is specifically focused on infrastructure-led upgrading of informal settlements in Kenya, though we expect that the principles and tactics demonstrated in 3iF can also be applied to urban development processes in other settings.

We hope that the research and guidance presented in 3iF builds momentum, action, and buy-in at the government level. 3iF is accompanied by “real-world”  test cases, as well as trainings and seminars for built environment professionals through the Architectural Association of Kenya.

We have developed a network of partners to incorporate 3iF principles and tactics into infrastructure projects. Through 3iF, we aim to spark a broader discussion of sustainable infrastructure in Kenya, while incorporating the perspectives of other professional  institutions, such as the Institution of Engineers of Kenya, the Kenya Green Building Council, and the Joint Building and Construction Council (JBCC).

3iF for who
Why 3iF
When 3iF

When to
Use 3iF

3iF is applicable to all stages of infrastructure projects, and its principles are relevant at regional, city, settlement, and neighbourhood scales. We use three infrastructure life-cycle groupings to differentiate where specific tactics might be applied: 

  1. Design & Planning

  2. Implementation & Use

  3. Governance & Policy

Give Us Your Feedback
We’d love to hear what your thoughts on 3iF

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Roads 3.JPG

"Slums can best serve citizens and nations if treated not as outlaw places to be eradicated, but as emergent communities to be supported through incremental, in-situ, slum upgrading processes [...]"

[adapted from Cities Alliance]

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